Signé le 28 avril 1952 , le traité de paix de Taipei entre le Japon et la République de Chine (chinois: 中日和平條約; japonais: 日華平和条約) découle du traité de paix de San Francisco, signé l’année précédente entre les Etats-Unis et le Japon (8 septembre 1951). Le traité de Taipei rétrocède formellement la souveraineté de Taïwan à « la Chine », représentée légalement par la puissance signataire, la République de Chine. C’est le seul traité international définissant le statut international de Taïwan, au profit de la République de Chine – qui représente alors la totalité de la Chine, continent compris.
Lors de la rencontre sino-japonaise à Pékin, en septembre 1972, du point de vue de Tokyo, la question de la fin de l’état de guerre entre la Chine et le Japon n’était pas évidente. Le Japon a fait valoir que même si la Chine de Pékin n’était pas liée par le traité de paix de Taipei du 25 avril 1952 entre le Japon et la République de Chine, ce traité établissait de fait une relation pacifique entre les deux pays. Dans les discussions préalables, Pékin exige que le traité de Taipei soit annulé par Tokyo, ce qui est fait. Le Communiqué de 1972 ne met fin à l’état de guerre entre la Chine (RPC) et le Japon que de facto (« À la date de l’annonce de la déclaration commune, l’état de guerre entre la République populaire de Chine et le Japon prendra fin. »), mais pas officiellement de jure. Toutefois, il prévoit la conclusion à venir d’un traité de paix. La question sera résolue par le traité de paix et d’amitié entre le Japon et la République populaire de Chine (chinois : 中华人民共和国和日本国和平友好条约; japonais : 日本国と中華人民共和国との間の平和友好条約), signé le 12 août 1978, pour une entrée en vigueur le 23 octobre 1978 à l’occasion de la visite d’État au Japon de DENG Xiaoping (1904-1997), alors vice-Premier ministre de la RPC.
Sources : United Nations Treaty Series 1952 (reg. no.1858), p. 38-44 , reproduit dans ; http://www.taiwandocuments.org/taipei01.htm, & https://china.usc.edu/treaty-peace-between-republic-china-and-japan-treaty-taipei-1952
Le traité de paix de Taipei du 28 avril 1952
« TREATY OF PEACE, April 28, 1952
The Republic of China and Japan,
Considering their mutual desire for good neighbourliness in view of their historical and cultural ties and geographical proximity; Realising the importance of their close cooperation to the promotion of their common welfare and to the maintenance of international peace and security; Recognising the need for a settlement of problems that have arisen as a result of the existence of a state of war between them; Have resolved to conclude a Treaty of Peace and have accordingly appointed as their Plenipotentiaries,
His Excellency the President of the Republic of China: Mr. YEH KUNG-CHAO;
The Government of Japan: Mr. ISAO KAWADA
Who, having communicated to each other their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:
The state of war between the Republic of China and Japan is terminated as from the date on which the present Treaty enters into force.
It is recognised that under Article 2 of the Treaty of Peace which Japan signed at the city of San Francisco on 8 September 1951 (hereinafter referred to as the San Francisco Treaty), Japan has renounced all right, title, and claim to Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores) as well as the Spratley Islands and the Paracel Islands.
The disposition of property of Japan and its nationals in Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores), and their claims, including debts, against the authorities of the Republic of China in Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores) and the residents thereof, and the disposition in Japan of property of such authorities and residents and their claims, including debts, against Japan and its nationals, shall be the subject of special arrangements between the Government of the Republic of China and the Government of Japan. The terms nationals and residents include juridical persons.
It is recognised that all treaties, conventions, and agreements concluded before 9 December 1941 between Japan and China have become null and void as a consequence of the war.
It is recognised that under the provisions of Article 10 of the San Francisco Treaty, Japan has renounced all special rights and its interests in China, including all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on 7 September 1901, and all annexes, notes, and documents supplementary thereto, and has agreed to the abrogation in respect to Japan of the said protocol, annexes, notes, and documents.
(a) The Republic of China and Japan will be guided by the principles of Article 2 of the Charter of the United Nations in their mutual relations.
(b) The Republic of China and Japan will cooperate in accordance with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and, in particular, will promote their common welfare through friendly cooperation in the economic field.
The Republic of China and Japan will endeavour to conclude, as soon as possible, a treaty or agreement to place their trading, maritime, and other commercial relations, on a stable and friendly basis.
The Republic of China and Japan will endeavour to conclude, as soon as possible, an agreement relating to civil air transport.
The Republic of China and Japan will endeavour to conclude, as soon as possible, an agreement providing for the regulation or limitation of fishing and the conservation and development of fisheries on the high seas.
For the purposes of the present Treaty, nationals of the Republic of China shall be deemed to include all the inhabitants and former inhabitants of Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores) and their descendents who are of the Chinese nationality in accordance with the laws and regulations which have been or may hereafter be enforced by the Republic of China in Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores); and juridical persons of the Republic of China shall be deemed to include all those registered under the laws and regulations which have been or may hereafter be enforced by the Republic of China in Taiwan (Formosa) and Penghu (the Pescadores).
Unless otherwise provided for in the present Treaty and the documents supplementary thereto, any problem arising between the Republic of China and Japan as a result of the existence of a state of war shall be settled in accordance with the relevant provisions of the San Francisco Treaty.
Any dispute that may arise out of the interpretation or application of the present Treaty shall be settled by negotiation or other pacific means.
The present Treaty shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Taipei as soon as possible. The present Treaty shall enter into force as from the date on which such instruments of ratification are exchanged.
The present Treaty shall be in the Chinese, Japanese, and English languages. In case of any divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have affixed thereto their seals.
Done in duplicate at Taipei, this Twenty Eighth day of the Fourth month of the Forty First year of the REPUBLIC OF CHINA, corresponding to the Twenty Eighth day of the Fourth month of the Twenty Seventh year of SHOWA of Japan and to the Twenty Eighth day of April in the year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Fifty Two.
YEH KUNG-CHAO, [L.S.]
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of China
ISAO KAWADA, [L.S.]
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Plenipotentiary of Japan »