Une manifestation de l’ANPO devant l’ambassade américaine à Tokyo, 11 juin 1960
Le Traité de sécurité entre les États-Unis et le Japon est signé le 8 septembre 1951 (Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan, ST-1951) parallèlement au Traité de paix de San Francisco, qui met fin à la Seconde Guerre mondiale en Asie ; il entre en vigueur le 28 avril 1952 ; il est accompagné par un «accord administratif» de 29 articles pour la mise en œuvre du traité. Le ST-1951 met fin à l’occupation du Japon et restaure la souveraineté du Japon. Il établit une alliance militaire entre les deux pays. Le Japon permet aux États-Unis de maintenir des bases militaires sur le sol japonais. Le texte autorise les États-Unis à utiliser ses forces stationnées au Japon sans consultation préalable avec le gouvernement japonais. Il ne fait pas obligation pour les forces américaines de défendre le Japon si celui-ci devait être attaqué.
Ce texte considéré comme humiliant provoque d’importantes manifestations nationalistes (de droite) ou pacifistes (de gauche) hostiles, en particulier le 1er mai 1952 (« Bloody May Day ») . L’hostilité au traité se confirme les années suivantes, avec des manifestations récurrentes devant les bases américaines (en particulier entre 1955 et 1957), qui dureront jusque dans les années 1970. L’ensemble de ces manifestations est connu sous l’appellation d’ANPO Protests, ou ANPO Struggle (安保闘争, Anpo tōsō), du nom japonais du Traité de sécurité, Anzen Hoshō Jōyaku (安全保障条約), ou ANPO (安保) en abrégé.
Le TS-51 est donc renégocié, annulé et remplacé le 19 juin 1960 par le Traité de coopération mutuelle et de sécurité entre les États-Unis et le Japon, signé à Washington (Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, TMCS-60). Par rapport au texte précédent : les États-Unis s’engagent à défendre le Japon en cas d’attaque ; ils doivent consulter le gouvernement japonais avant d’envoyer des forces américaines basées au Japon à l’étranger. Des manifestations encore plus importantes que dans la décennie précédente essaient de bloquer la ratification du TMCS-60. Elles n’empêchent pas la Diète de ratifier le texte le 19 mai 1960, et le traité de prendre effet le 19 juin 1960 . On notera que l’archipel d’Okinawa reste sous contrôle américain avec un statut spécial, jusqu’à sa réintégration au Japon en 1972.
Dans ces deux textes, Taïwan, non citée, est englobée dans la zone d’Extrême-Orient sous protection des forces américaines. Après la signature du Communiqué conjoint avec Pékin en 1972, et en l’absence d’élaboration ultérieure par Tokyo d’un Taiwan Relations Act (TRA) équivalent au texte américain de 1979, le Japon n’évoque jamais une éventuelle contribution des Forces d’auto-défense (FAD) à la sécurité de Taïwan. Tokyo renvoie donc aux clauses de TS-51, puis TMCS-60 – et plus tard au TRA, pour tout ce qui concerne ce sujet : c’est aux Etats-Unis d’assurer la sécurité de Taïwan.
Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan (September 8, 1951)
Japan has this day signed a Treaty of Peace with the Allied Powers. On the coming into force of that Treaty, Japan will not have the effective means to exercise its inherent right of self-defense because it has been disarmed.
There is danger to Japan in this situation because irresponsible militarism has not yet been driven from the world. Therefore, Japan desires a Security Treaty with the United States of America to come into force simultaneously with the Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and Japan.
The Treaty of Peace recognizes that Japan as a sovereign nation has the right to enter into collective security arrangements, and further, the Charter of the United Nations recognizes that all nations possess an inherent right of individual and collective self-defense.
In exercise of these rights, Japan desires, as a provisional arrangement for its defense, that the United States of America should maintain armed forces of its own in and about Japan so as to deter armed attack upon Japan.
The United States of America, in the interest of peace and security, is presently willing to maintain certain of its armed forces in and about Japan, in the expectation, however, that Japan will itself increasingly assume responsibility for its own defense against direct and indirect aggression, always avoiding any armament which could be an offensive threat or serve other than to promote peace and security in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter.
Accordingly, the two countries have agreed as follows:
Japan grants, and the United States of America accepts, the right, upon the coming into force of the Treaty of Peace and of this Treaty, to dispose United States land, air and sea forces in and about Japan. Such forces may be utilized to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East and to the security of Japan against armed attack from without, including assistance given at the express request of the Japanese Government to put down largescale internal riots and disturbances in Japan, caused through instigation or intervention by an outside power or powers.
During the exercise of the right referred to in Article I, Japan will not grant, without the prior consent of the United States of America, any bases or any rights, powers or authority whatsoever, in or relating to bases or the right of garrison or of maneuver, or transit of ground, air or naval forces to any third power.
The conditions which shall govern the disposition of armed forces of the United States of America in and about Japan shall be determined by administrative agreements between the two Governments.
This Treaty shall expire whenever in the opinion of the Governments of the United States of America and Japan there shall have come into force such United Nations arrangements or such alternative individual or collective security dispositions as will satisfactorily provide for the maintenance by the United Nations or otherwise of international peace and security in the Japan Area.
This Treaty shall be ratified by the United States of America and Japan and will come into force when instruments of ratification thereof have been exchanged by them at Washington.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty.
DONE in duplicate at the city of San Francisco, in the English and Japanese languages, this eighth day of September, 1951.
FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
John Foster Dulles
Source : https://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/japan001.asp
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan (January 19, 1960)
Japan and the United States of America,
Desiring to strengthen the bonds of peace and friendship traditionally existing between them, and to uphold the principles of democracy, individual liberty, and the rule of law,
Desiring further to encourage closer economic cooperation between them and to promote conditions of economic stability and well-being in their countries,
Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments,
Recognizing that they have the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense as affirmed in the Charter of the United Nations,
Considering that they have a common concern in the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East,
Having resolved to conclude a treaty of mutual cooperation and security,
Therefore agree as follows:
The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. The Parties will endeavor in concert with other peace-loving countries to strengthen the United Nations so that its mission of maintaining international peace and security may be discharged more effectively.
The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between them.
The Parties, individually and in cooperation with each other, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid will maintain and develop, subject to their constitutional provisions, their capacities to resist armed attack.
The Parties will consult together from time to time regarding the implementation of this Treaty, and, at the request of either Party, whenever the security of Japan or international peace and security in the Far East is threatened.
Each Party recognizes that an armed attack against either Party in the territories under the administration of Japan would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional provisions and processes. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall be immediately reported to the Security Council of the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Article 51 of the Charter. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.
For the purpose of contributing to the security of Japan and the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East, the United States of America is granted the use by its land, air and naval forces of facilities and areas in Japan. The use of these facilities and areas as well as the status of United States armed forces in Japan shall be governed by a separate agreement, replacing the Administrative Agreement under Article III of the Security Treaty between Japan and the United States of America, signed at Tokyo on February 28, 1952, as amended, and by such other arrangements as may be agreed upon.
This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the responsibility of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security.
This Treaty shall be ratified by Japan and the United States of America in accordance with their respective constitutional processes and will enter into force on the date on which the instruments of ratification thereof have been exchanged by them in Tokyo.
The Security Treaty between Japan and the United States of America signed at the city of San Francisco on September 8, 1951 shall expire upon the entering into force of this Treaty.
This Treaty shall remain in force until in the opinion of the Governments of Japan and the United States of America there shall have come into force such United Nations arrangements as will satisfactorily provide for the maintenance of international peace and security in the Japan area. However, after the Treaty has been in force for ten years, either Party may give notice to the other Party of its intention to terminate the Treaty, in which case the Treaty shall terminate one year after such notice has been given.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty.
DONE in duplicate at Washington in the Japanese and English languages, both equally authentic, this 19th day of January, 1960.
FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
Christian A. Herter
Douglas MacArthur 2nd
J. Graham Parsons
Source : https://www.mofa.go.jp/region/n-america/us/q&a/ref/1.html